Archives For KVM

Welcome to Part 4 for this series about OpenStack and VMware NSX. To do a quick review, in the first three parts we described the different VMware NSX components and concepts and how to install and configure them, also discussed how to install and configure the KVM and GlusterFS nodes. In this fourth part of the series we will see how to deploy OpenStack in a three-node architecture and integrate it with our existent NSX installation.

If you remember the first post where I described the components of the lab, there were three OpenStack dedicated nodes:

  • Cloud controller node
  • Neutron networking node
  • Nova compute node

Instead of installing from scratch I decided to go with one of the OpenStack distributions: RDO. What is RDO and why I decided for it? RDO is a community distribution of OpenStack sponsored by Red Hat, yes I just say Red Hat so please stop the eye rolling.

RDO is the upstream version of RHEL OpenStack Platform, the commercial version of OpenStack by Red Hat. During the last months I tried several flavors of OpenStack and while I still think that installing from scratch is the best way to learn, in fact is what I did for my first labs, RDO gives me the possibility to quickly create my testing labs. Also RHEL OP Version 4, based on RDO, is supported with VMware NSX and I really couldn’t resist myself to try it.

Installation prerequisites

Before proceeding with the installation there are some preparations we need to perform on the OpenStack nodes.

SSH key generation

Generate a new SSH key to be later distributed on the OpenStack nodes during the installation. Use ssh-keygen to generate the new key.

Neutron server preparation

In the Neutron node install NSX Open vSwitch version as described in Part 3 for the KVM nodes, the network interface configuration it’s quite similar.

With the network interface configuration files properly setup exist your SSH session and log into the VM console to create the OVS bridges like the example below.

ovs-vsctl add-br br-ex
ovs-vsctl br-set-external-id br-ex bridge-id br-ex
ovs-vsctl set Bridge br-ex fail-mode=standalone
ovs-vsctl add-port br-ex eth0

OpenStack installation

RDO relies on packstack for the installation of its different components. Packstack is a tool that will install all required software in the nodes based on an answer file. Enable RDO and EPEL repos and install openstack-packstack package.

yum install -y
yum install -y
yum install -y openstack-packstack

Once it is installed generate a new answer file, we will use this file as a template for our installation.

packstack --gen-answer-file rdo_answers.txt

Edit packstack answer file and modify the following entries, leave the rest with the default values. It is important to do not eliminate any entry or packstack execution will fail.

Deactivate services we do not want to deploy.


Nova settings.


And finally Neutron settings. Don’t set any L3 value since that part will be managed by NSX.


Launch OpenStack installation process.

packstack --answer-file rdo_answers.txt

The installation will take a while so you better grab a cup of coffee and have a look at the output while the software installs on each of the three nodes. If everything goes as expected we should see a similar message at the of the installation process.

 **** Installation completed successfully ******

Additional information:
 * Time synchronization installation was skipped. Please note that unsynchronized time on server instances might be problem for some OpenStack components.
 * File /root/keystonerc_admin has been created on OpenStack client host To use the command line tools you need to source the file.
 * To access the OpenStack Dashboard browse to
Please, find your login credentials stored in the keystonerc_admin in your home directory. 
 * Because of the kernel update the host requires reboot. 
 * Because of the kernel update the host requires reboot.
 * Because of the kernel update the host requires reboot.
 * The installation log file is available at: /var/tmp/packstack/20140617-001835-On5TCi/openstack-setup.log 
 * The generated manifests are available at: /var/tmp/packstack/20140617-001835-On5TCi/manifests 
[root@cloud-controller ~]#

Reboot the three nodes as instructed and proceed to the next step.

Configure Glance to use GlusterFS

RDO packstack cannot configure Glance to use GlusterFS as its storage backend during the installation and it has to be configured afterwards. Fortunately the necessary steps are documented on RDO site.

Stop Glance services.

service openstack-glance-registry stop
service openstack-glance-api stop

Install gluster required packages on the controller node.

yum install glusterfs-fuse glusterfs

Mount GlusterFS share and set the ownership and permissions for glance user.

mount -t glusterfs gluster.vlab.local:gv0 /var/lib/glance/images
chown -R glance:glance /var/lib/glance/images

Start Glance services.

service openstack-glance-registry start
service openstack-glance-api start

With the installation finished OpenStack Horizon dashboard should be available at http://cloud_controller_fqdn/dashboard. Log in with the user admin, the password for this user can be found in the file /root/keystonerc_admin on the cloud controller node.

[root@cloud-controller ~]# cat keystonerc_admin
export OS_USERNAME=admin
export OS_TENANT_NAME=admin
export OS_PASSWORD=cd0ed5b5f251450f
export OS_AUTH_URL=
export PS1='[\u@\h \W(keystone_admin)]\$ '
[root@cloud-controller ~]#

If login fails with an unexpected error check that firewall is deactivated in all three nodes and that all services are up and running, in some of my deployments Neutron server did not start after a reboot and I had to start it manually.

Once logged into horizon navigate to Admin -> Hypervisor and check that the KVM hypervisor is properly registered.

Screen Shot 2014-06-17 at 01.56.04

Configure the NSX integration

At this point we have a working OpenStack installation with Neutron using the Open vSwitch plugin, now we will proceed to integrate our shiny OpenStack cloud with NSX.

Install NSX Neutron plugin

VMware provides a set of RPM packages containing the NSX plugin and a VMware sanctioned version of Neutron, however I found that this packages were older than my Havana installation and didn’t want to brake any dependencies and spend hours trying to fix my installation.

A tar file containing all the source for both the plugin and Neutron itself is also available and instructions on how to compile and install it are provided in NSX documentation, during my first trials I took this path but this time I decided to use the upstream plugin instead since it was available in RDO repositories.

yum install openstack-neutron-nicira

Configure NSX plugin

Register the Neutron server as a transport node on the NSX Controller Cluster.

ovs-vsctl set-manager ssl:

Stop neutron services.

service neutron-server stop

Edit /etc/neutron/neutron.conf file and set core_plugin value to neutron.plugins.nicira.NeutronPlugin.NvpPluginV2.

Configure nvp.ini file accordingly, this file can be found in /etc/neutron/plugins/nicira.

Set NSX admin user and password.

nvp_user = admin
nvp_password = admin

Configure NSX controllers IP addresses.

nvp_controllers =

Set the default Transport Zone UUID and the L3 and L2 gateway serveices UUID, these values can be retrieved from the NSX Manager web.

default_tz_uuid = b948fd35-5737-4a30-8741-43134771d40c
default_l3_gw_service_uuid = adee048c-3776-4bd2-ade1-42ab5c90bf9e

Configure metadata for Nova instances, set metadata_dhcp_host_route to False in [DEFAULT] section. In [nvp] section set the metadata mode as access_network.

enable_metadata_access_network = True
metadata_mode = access_network

Create a [database] section and configure the connection to Neutron MySQL database, the data can be found on neutron.conf file.

connection = mysql://neutron:ac2191a8661b4b66@

FInally before start Neutron services check nvp.ini with the command neutron-check-nvp-config. You should get something like this.

[root@neutron ~]# neutron-check-nvp-config /etc/neutron/plugins/nicira/nvp.ini
----------------------- Database Options -----------------------
        connection: mysql://neutron:ac2191a8661b4b66@
        retry_interval: 10
        max_retries: 10
-----------------------    NVP Options   -----------------------
        NVP Generation Timeout -1
        Number of concurrent connections to each controller 10
        max_lp_per_bridged_ls: 5000
        max_lp_per_overlay_ls: 256
-----------------------  Cluster Options -----------------------
        requested_timeout: 30
        retries: 2
        redirects: 2
        http_timeout: 10
Number of controllers found: 1
        Controller endpoint:
                Gateway(L3GatewayServiceConfig) uuid: adee048c-3776-4bd2-ade1-42ab5c90bf9e
        Transport zones: [u'b948fd35-5737-4a30-8741-43134771d40c']
[root@neutron ~]#

Start Neutron services

service neutron-server start

Create a network neutron command line to test that everything is working as expected.

[root@cloud-controller ~(keystone_admin)]# neutron net-create nsx-test-net
Created a new network:
| Field                 | Value                                |
| admin_state_up        | True                                 |
| id                    | 24f3b23f-a938-40e7-b026-14c8fb77ff34 |
| name                  | nsx-test-net                         |
| port_security_enabled | True                                 |
| shared                | False                                |
| status                | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets               |                                      |
| tenant_id             | 4d9fbabd4c9d4fa4a2185ff7559ae4e8     |
[root@cloud-controller ~(keystone_admin)]#
[root@cloud-controller ~(keystone_admin)]# neutron net-list
| id                                   | name         | subnets |
| 24f3b23f-a938-40e7-b026-14c8fb77ff34 | nsx-test-net |         |
[root@cloud-controller ~(keystone_admin)]#

Access NSX Manager web interface, navigate to Logical Switches and confirm that a new logical switch with the same name and UUID as the new OpenStack network has been created.

Screen Shot 2014-06-21 at 22.15.20

Congratulations! We have successfully deployed a distributed installation of OpenStack with KVM as the underlying hypervisor and integrated with VMware NSX state of the art network virtualization software. In future posts out of this four article series we will discuss some tips and other parts of OpenStack and NSX. Courteous comments are welcome.


kvmWelcome to the third post of my series about OpenStack. In the first and second posts we saw in detail how to prepare the basic network infrastructure of our future OpenStack cloud using VMware NSX. In this third one we are going to install and configure the KVM compute host and the shared storage of the lab.

KVM setup

Create and install two CentOS 6.4 virtual machines with 2 vCPU, 2 GB of RAM, 2 network interfaces (E1000) and one 16GB disk. For the partitioning schema I have used the following one:

  • sda1 – 512MB – /boot
  • sda2 – Rest of the disk – LVM PV
    • lv_root – 13.5GB – /
    • lv_swap – 2GB – swap

Mark Base and Standard groups to be installed and leave the rest unchecked. Set the hostname during the installation and leave the networking configuration with the default values. Please have in mind that you will need to have a DHCP server on your network, in my case I’m using the one that comes with VMware Fusion if you don’t have one then you will have to set here a temporary IP address in order to able to install the KVM software. Once the installation is done reboot your virtual machine and open a root SSH session to proceed with the rest of the configuration tasks.

Disable SELinux with setenfornce command, also modify SELinux config to disable it during OS boot. I do not recommend to disable SELinux in a production environment but for a lab it will simplify things.

setenforce 0
cp /etc/selinux/config /etc/selinux/config.orig
sed -i s/SELINUX\=enforcing/SELINUX\=disabled/ /etc/selinux/config

Check that hardware virtualization support is activated.

egrep -i 'vmx|svm' /proc/cpuinfo

Install KVM packages.

yum install kvm libvirt python-virtinst qemu-kvm

After installing a ton of dependencies and if t nothing failed enable and start the libvirtd service.

[root@kvm1 ~]# chkconfig libvirtd on
[root@kvm1 ~]# service libvirtd start
Starting libvirtd daemon:                                  [  OK  ]
[root@kvm1 ~]#

Verify that KVM has been correctly installed and it’s loaded and running on the system.

[root@kvm1 ~]# lsmod | grep kvm
kvm_intel              53484  0
kvm                   316506  1 kvm_intel
[root@kvm1 ~]#
[root@kvm1 ~]# virsh -c qemu:///system list
 Id    Name                           State

[root@kvm1 ~]#

Hypervisor networking setup

With KVM software installed and ready we can now move on to configure the networking for both hosts and integrate them into our NSX deployment.

Disable Network Manager for both interfaces. Edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethX files and change NM_CONTROLLED value to no.

By default libvirt creates virbr0 network bridge to be used for the virtual machines to access the external network through a NAT connection. We need to disable it to ensure that bridge components of Open vSwitch can load without any errors.

virsh net-destroy default
virsh net-autostart --disable default

Install Open vSwitch

Copy the NSX OVS package to the KVM host and extract it.

[root@kvm1 nsx-ovs]# tar vxfz nsx-ovs-2.1.0-build33849-rhel64_x86_64.tar.gz
[root@kvm1 nsx-ovs]#

Install Open vSwitch packages.

rpm -Uvh kmod-openvswitch-
rpm -Uvh openvswitch-

Verify that Open vSwitch service is enabled and start it.

[root@kvm1 ~]# chkconfig --list openvswitch
openvswitch     0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off
[root@kvm1 ~]#
[root@kvm1 ~]#
[root@kvm1 ~]# service openvswitch start
/etc/openvswitch/conf.db does not exist ... (warning).
Creating empty database /etc/openvswitch/conf.db           [  OK  ]
Starting ovsdb-server                                      [  OK  ]
Configuring Open vSwitch system IDs                        [  OK  ]
Inserting openvswitch module                               [  OK  ]
Starting ovs-vswitchd                                      [  OK  ]
Enabling remote OVSDB managers                             [  OK  ]
[root@kvm1 ~]#

Install nicira-ovs-hypervisor-node package, this utility provides the infrastructure for distributed routing on the hypervisor. With the installation the integration bridge br-int and OVS SSL credentials will be created.

[root@kvm1 ~]# rpm -Uvh nicira-ovs-hypervisor-node*.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:nicira-ovs-hypervisor-n########################################### [ 50%]
   2:nicira-ovs-hypervisor-n########################################### [100%]
Running '/usr/sbin/ovs-integrate init'
successfully generated self-signed certificates..
successfully created the integration bridge..
[root@kvm1 ~]#

There are other packages like nicira-flow-stats-exporter and tcpdump-ovs but they are not needed for OVS functioning. We can proceed now with OVS configuration.

Configure Open vSwitch

The first step is to create OVS bridges for each network interface card of the hypervisor.

ovs-vsctl add-br br0
ovs-vsctl br-set-external-id br0 bridge-id br0
ovs-vsctl set Bridge br0 fail-mode=standalone
ovs-vsctl add-port br0 eth0

If you were logged in by an SSH session you have probably noticed that your connection is lost, this is because br0 interface has taken control of the networking of the host and it doesn’t have an IP address configured. To solve this access the host console and edit ifcfg-eth0 file and modify to look like this.


Next create and edit ifcfg-br0 file.


Restart the network service and test the connection.

service network restart

Repeat all the above steps for the second network interface.

Finally configure NSX Controller Cluster as manager in Open vSwitch.

ovs-vsctl set-manager ssl:

Execute ovs-vsctl show command to review OVS current configuration.

[root@kvm1 ~]# ovs-vsctl show
    Manager "ssl:"
    Bridge "br1"
        fail_mode: standalone
        Port "br1"
            Interface "br1"
                type: internal
        Port "eth1"
            Interface "eth1"
    Bridge "br0"
        fail_mode: standalone
        Port "eth0"
            Interface "eth0"
        Port "br0"
            Interface "br0"
                type: internal
    Bridge br-int
        fail_mode: secure
        Port br-int
            Interface br-int
                type: internal
    ovs_version: ""
[root@kvm1 ~]#

Register OVS in NSX Controller

With our OVS instance installed and running we can now inform NSX Controller of its existence either via NVP API or NSX Manager, in our case we will use the later.

Log into NSX Manager as admin user and go to Dashboard, from Summary of Transport Components table click Add in the Hypervisors row. Verify that Hypervisor is selected as transport node and move to the Basics screen. Enter a name for the hypervisor, usually the hostname of the server.

Screen Shot 2014-05-05 at 23.18.22

In Properties enter:

  • Integration bridge ID, for us is br-int.
  • Admin Status Enabled –  Enabled by default.

Screen Shot 2014-05-05 at 23.29.03

For the Credential screen we are going to need the SSL certificate that was created along with the integration bridge during the NSX OVS installation. The PEM certificate file is ovsclient-cert.pem and is in /etc/openvswitch directory.

[root@kvm1 ~]# cat /etc/openvswitch/ovsclient-cert.pem
[root@kvm1 ~]#

Copy the contents of the file and paste them in the Security Certificate text box.

Screen Shot 2014-05-05 at 23.36.28

Finally add the Transport Connector with the values:

  • Transport Type: STT
  • Transport Zone UUID: The transport zone, in my case the UUID corresponding to vlab-transport-zone.
  • IP Address – The address of the br0 interface of the host.

Screen Shot 2014-05-05 at 23.41.57

Click Save & View and check that Management and OpenFlow connections are up.

Screen Shot 2014-05-05 at 23.52.16

GlusterFS setup

gluster-logo-300x115I choose GlusterFS for my OpenStack lab for two reasons.  I have used it in the past so this has been a good opportunity for me to refresh and enhance my rusty gluster skills, and it’s supported as storage backend for Glance in OpenStack. Instead of going with CentOS again this time I choose Fedora 20 for my gluster VM, a real world GlusterFS cluster will have at least two node but for our lab one will be enough.

Create a Fedora x64 virtual machine with 1 vCPU, 1GB of RAM and one network interface. For the storage part use the following:

  • System disk: 16GB
  • Data disk: 72GB

Use the same partitioning schema of the KVM hosts for the system disk. Choose a Minimal installation and add the Standard group. Configure the hostname and the IP address of the node, set the root password and create a user as administrator, I’m using here my personal user jrey.

Disable SELinux.

sudo setenforce 0
sudo cp /etc/selinux/config /etc/selinux/config.orig
sudo sed -i s/SELINUX\=enforcing/SELINUX\=disabled/ /etc/selinux/config

Stop and disable firewalld.

sudo systemctl disable firewalld.service
sudo systemctl stop firewalld.service

Install GlusterFS packages. There is no need to add any additional yum repository since Gluster is included in the standard Fedora repos.

sudo systemctl install glusterfs-server

Enable Gluster services.

sudo systemctl enable glusterd.service
sudo systemctl enable glusterfsd.service

Start Gluster services.

[jrey@gluster ~]$ sudo systemctl start glusterd.service
[jrey@gluster ~]$ sudo systemctl start glusterfsd.service
[jrey@gluster ~]$
[jrey@gluster ~]$ sudo systemctl status glusterd.service
glusterd.service - GlusterFS an clustered file-system server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/glusterd.service; enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Mon 2014-04-28 17:17:35 CEST; 20s ago
  Process: 1496 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/glusterd -p /run/ (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 1497 (glusterd)
   CGroup: /system.slice/glusterd.service
           └─1497 /usr/sbin/glusterd -p /run/

Apr 28 17:17:35 gluster.vlab.local systemd[1]: Started GlusterFS an clustered file-system server.
[jrey@gluster ~]$
[jrey@gluster ~]$ sudo systemctl status glusterfsd.service
glusterfsd.service - GlusterFS brick processes (stopping only)
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/glusterfsd.service; enabled)
   Active: active (exited) since Mon 2014-04-28 17:17:45 CEST; 15s ago
  Process: 1515 ExecStart=/bin/true (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 1515 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

Apr 28 17:17:45 gluster.vlab.local systemd[1]: Starting GlusterFS brick processes (stopping only)...
Apr 28 17:17:45 gluster.vlab.local systemd[1]: Started GlusterFS brick processes (stopping only).
[jrey@gluster ~]$

Since we are running a one-node cluster there is no need to add any node to the trusted pool. In case you decide to run a multinode environment you can setup the pool by running the following command on each node of the clsuter. .

gluster peer probe <IP_ADDRESS_OF_OTHER_NODE>

Edit the data disk with fdisk and create a single partition. Format the partition as XFS.

[jrey@gluster ~]$ sudo mkfs.xfs -i size=512 /dev/sdb1
meta-data=/dev/sdb1              isize=512    agcount=4, agsize=4718528 blks
         =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=0
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=18874112, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0
log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=9215, version=2
         =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
[jrey@gluster ~]$

Create the mount point for the new filesystem, mount the partition and edit /etc/fstab accordingly to make it persistent to reboots.

sudo mkdir -p /data/glance/
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /data/glance
sudo mkdir -p /data/glance/brick1
sudo echo "/dev/sdb1 /data/glance xfs defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab

Create the Gluster volume and start it.

[jrey@gluster ~]$ sudo gluster volume create gv0 gluster.vlab.local:/data/glance/brick1
volume create: gv0: success: please start the volume to access data
[jrey@gluster ~]$
[jrey@gluster ~]$ sudo gluster volume start gv0
volume start: gv0: success
[jrey@gluster ~]$
[jrey@gluster ~]$ sudo gluster volume info

Volume Name: gv0
Type: Distribute
Volume ID: d1ad2d00-6210-4856-a5eb-26ddcba77a70
Status: Started
Number of Bricks: 1
Transport-type: tcp
Brick1: gluster.vlab.local:/data/glance/brick1
[jrey@gluster ~]$

The configuration of the Gluster node is finished. In the next article we will install and configure OpenStack using the different components detailed during current and previous parts of the series.

Please feel free to add any comment or correction.