Like other virtualization software, HP Integrity Virtual Machines comes with several memory management capabilities. In this new post about HPVM I will try to explain what are these capabilities, their purpose and how to configure and use them.
- Dynamic memory
Dynamic memory is an HPVM feature that allow you to resize the amount of memory of a guest without rebooting it. The HPVM manual mention an example in which dynamic memory is applicable.
…this feature allows a guest that is a Serviceguard node to be used as a standby server for multiple Serviceguard packages. When a package fails over to the guest, the guest memory can be changed to suit the requirements of the package before, during, and after the failover process.
Dynamic memory is only available on HP-UX guests with the guest management software installed.
Lets see how to enable an configure dynamic memory.
First thing to do is to enable dynamic memory.
root@hinata:~ # hpvmmodify -P batman -x ram_dyn_type=driver
There are three possible values for the
- None: Self explanatory.
- Any: In the next boot of the guest it will check if dynamic memory is enabled and if the driver is loaded. If the dynamic memory driver is in place the option will change its value to driver.
- Driver: When the ram_dyn_type is set to driver it means that every dynamic memory control and range is functional.
Specify the minimun amount of RAM to be allocated to the guest, the default unit is MB but GB can also be used.
root@hinata:~ # hpvmmodify -P batman -x ram_dyn_min=1024
Next set the maximum memory.
root@hinata:~ # hpvmmodify -P batman -x ram_dyn_max=4G
Set the amount of memory to be allocated when the guests starts, this value must be greater than the minimum one.
root@hinata:~ # hpvmmodify -P batman -x ram_dyn_target_start=2048
Check the status of the guest to see the newly configured options.
root@hinata:~ # hpvmstatus -r -P batman [Virtual Machine entitlements] Percent Cumulative #VCPUs Entitlement Maximum Usage Usage ====== =========== ======= ======= ================ 6 10.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0 [Virtual CPU details] vCPU Cumulative Guest Host Cycles Sampling ID Usage percent percent achieved Interval ==== ================ ======= ======= ======== =========== 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0MHz 0 seconds 1 0 0.0% 0.0% 0MHz 0 seconds 2 0 0.0% 0.0% 0MHz 0 seconds 3 0 0.0% 0.0% 0MHz 0 seconds 4 0 0.0% 0.0% 0MHz 0 seconds 5 0 0.0% 0.0% 0MHz 0 seconds [Virtual Machine Memory Entitlement] DynMem Memory DynMem DynMem DynMem Comfort Total Free Avail Mem AMR AMR Min Entitle Max Target Current Min Memory Memory Memory Press Chunk State ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ===== ======= ======== 1024MB 0MB 4GB 4096MB 4096MB 0MB 4GB 0MB 0MB 0 0MB DISABLED
Once dynamic memory is properly configured, from the VM host, the memory of a guest can be manually resized to a value between the
ram_dyn_max parameters in increments of the default chunk size, which is 64MB.
root@hinata:~ # hpvmmodify -P batman -x ram_target=3136
There is one final option named
dynamic_memory_control, with this option the system administration can allow the root user of the guest to change dynamic memory options, from the guest side, while it is running. The
dynamic_memory_control option is incompatible with automatic memory reallocation.
Just to show a small example from the guest side, to view the dynamic memory configuration:
root@batman:~# hpvmmgmt -V -l ram [Dynamic Memory Information] ======================================= Type : driver Minimum memory : 1024 MB Target memory : 4090 MB Maximum memory : 4096 MB Current memory : 4090 MB Comfortable minimum : 1850 MB Boot memory : 4090 MB Free memory : 2210 MB Available memory : 505 MB Memory pressure : 0 Memory chunksize : 65536 KB Driver Mode(s) : STARTED ENABLED root@batman:~#
- Automatic memory reallocation
The new HPVM 4.2 version from March expands dynamic memory with an interesting feature called Automatic Memory Reallocation. This new feature provides the possibility of automated changes in the amount of memory used by a guest based on load conditions.
Automatic memory reallocation is only supported on HP-UX guests with dynamic memory enabled and with the guest management software installed.
Automatic memory reallocation can be configured through two ways:
- System-wide values.
- On a per-VM basis.
Each way doesn’t exclude the other one, you can set the system-wide parameters for every VM and later customize some of the virtual machines adjusting their parameters to any additional requirement.
Automatic memory reallocation is enabled by default on the VM host. Open the file
/etc/rc.config.d/hpvmconf and check that
HPVMAMRENABLE=0 is not set to verify that automatic memory reallocation is enabled. The process
hpmvmamrd, the automatic memory reallocation daemon, can also be check with a simple
In the same file two system-wide tunables can be configured.
The first parameter determine the number of megabytes by the guest will attempt to grow if there is memory pressure. If the parameter is not set the default value will be 256MB. The best practice for this parameter is to be a multiple of the dynamic memory chunk size.
The second one set the maximum number of seconds that any VM startup process will wait for memory before reporting a failure due to insufficient memory. The default value is 60 seconds and the maximum configurable 600 seconds.
With the above parameter set to its defaults or customized the next step is to enable automatic memory reallocation in the virtual machines. The amr feature is DISABLED by default on the VMs. To enable use the
root@hinata:~ # hpvmmodify -P batman -x amr_enable=1
Now set the memory entitlement for the virtual machine. The entitlement is the minimum amount of RAM guaranteed to the virtual machine.
root@hinata:~ # hpvmmodify -P batman -x ram_dyn_entitlement=1500
Take into account that if
amr is not enabled the entitlement could be set but it will not work and any VM without the entitlement parameter set will be ignored by automatic memory reallocation.
The entitlement value can be modified online by the system administrator at any time, but there are some rules that apply:
- If there is not enough memory to grow the VM memory to the specified entitlement the operation will fail.
- The memory of virtual machine can not be grown beyond its maximum memory.
- The virtual machine memory always have to be set to a value between
ram_dyn_minparameters, no more no less.
When the memory of a guest is resized by default the
HPVMCHUNKSIZE value is used but a per-VM chunk size can also be set. To do so use the
root@hinata:~ # hpvmmodify -P batman -x amr_chunk_resize=512
As in the system-wide parameter the recommendation is to set the chunk size to a multiple of the dynamic memory chunks size.
Finally to display the configuration and the current use of the virtual machines resource entitlements use
root@hinata:~ # hpvmstatus -r [Virtual Machine Resource Entitlement] [Virtual CPU entitlement] Percent Cumulative Virtual Machine Name VM # #VCPUs Entitlement Maximum Usage Usage ==================== ===== ====== =========== ======= ======= ================ rh-www 1 4 50.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0 sql-dev 2 4 50.0% 100.0% 0.3% 21611866 rhino 3 4 50.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0 batman 4 8 20.0% 100.0% 0.8% 1318996 robin 5 8 20.0% 100.0% 0.8% 97993 falcon 6 2 10.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0 [Virtual Machine Memory Entitlement] DynMem Memory DynMem DynMem DynMem Comfort Total Free Avail Mem AMR AMR Virtual Machine Name VM # Min Entitle Max Target Current Min Memory Memory Memory Press Chunk State ==================== ===== ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ===== ======= ======== rh-www 1 512MB 0MB 8GB 8192MB 8192MB 0MB 8GB 0MB 0MB 0 0MB DISABLED sql-dev 2 512MB 0MB 8GB 8192MB 8192MB 0MB 8GB 0MB 0MB 0 0MB DISABLED rhino 3 1024MB 1500MB 6GB 2048MB 6144MB 0MB 6GB 0MB 0MB 0 256MB ENABLED batman 4 1024MB 1500MB 4GB 4090MB 4090MB 1850MB 4GB 2214MB 500MB 0 256MB ENABLED robin 5 1024MB 1500MB 4GB 4090MB 4090MB 1914MB 4GB 2165MB 531MB 0 256MB ENABLED falcon 6 512MB 0MB 6GB 6144MB 6144MB 0MB 6GB 0MB 0MB 0 0MB DISABLED
I hope this helps to clarify how HPVM manage the memory of the virtual machines and how to customize its configuration. As always any comment would be welcome :-)